According to QC / t837-2010 “types of hybrid electric vehicles” issued in 2010, hybrid electric vehicles can be classified in many ways: according to the structure of power system, there are mainly three forms: series, parallel and hybrid; According to the degree of mixing, there are four types: micro mixing, light mixing, medium mixing and heavy mixing; According to the external charging capacity, there are two types: external charging and non external charging; According to the selection mode of driving mode, it can be divided into manual selection function and no manual selection function. Among them, driving mode refers to three selection functions: heat engine mode, pure electric mode and hybrid mode; According to the purpose of the vehicle, it is divided into passenger cars, buses and trucks.
- Divided according to the structural form of power system
1.1. Series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV)
The driving force of the vehicle driving system only comes from the hybrid electric vehicle with electric motor.
The structure is characterized in that the engine drives the generator to generate electricity, the electric energy is transmitted to the motor through the motor controller, and the motor drives the car. In addition, the power battery can also separately provide electric energy to the motor to drive the car.
Series type is the simplest kind of hybrid electric vehicle. The mechanical energy output by the engine is first converted into electric energy through the generator. Part of the converted electric energy is used to charge the battery, and the other part drives the wheels through the motor and transmission device. Compared with the fuel vehicle, it is an engine assisted electric vehicle, mainly to increase the mileage of the vehicle. Since there is no clutch in the mechanical connection device between the engine and the generator, it has a certain flexibility. Although its transmission structure is simple, it needs three driving devices: engine, generator and motor. If the series hybrid electric vehicle is designed to climb a long slope, the size of the three driving devices to provide maximum power will be larger. If it is used for short-distance operation, such as commuting vehicles or just shopping, the corresponding internal combustion engine generator device should adopt low-power.
1.2. Parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)
A hybrid electric vehicle in which the driving force of the vehicle driving system is supplied simultaneously or separately by the motor and engine. The structural feature is that the parallel drive system can use the engine or motor as the power source alone, or use the motor and engine as the power source to drive the vehicle at the same time.
1.3. Combined hybrid electric vehicle
Hybrid electric vehicle with series and parallel hybrid system structure.
The structural feature is that it can work in series hybrid mode or parallel hybrid mode, taking into account the characteristics of series and parallel.
- Classification according to mixing degree
2.1. Micro hybrid electric vehicle
Micro mixing, also known as “micro hybrids”. In the micro hybrid system, the motor is only used as the starter / generator of the internal combustion engine (BSG system). The motor is a stop start integrated motor, which is used to control the start and stop of the engine, so as to cancel the rest speed of the engine and reduce fuel consumption and emission. In general, the ratio of the peak power of the motor to the rated power of the engine is ≤ 5%.
2.2. Mild hybrid electric vehi-cle
The hybrid system adopts integrated starter generator (ISG system). The vehicle takes the engine as the main power source, and the auxiliary motor is installed between the engine and the transmission. When more driving force is required during driving, it is used as an electric motor. It is used as a starter when it is necessary to restart the stalled engine. It can realize: absorb part of the energy under deceleration and braking conditions; The energy demand of the engine can be adjusted between the driving speed of the engine and the driving speed of the engine. Generally, the ratio of the peak power of the motor to the rated power of the engine is 5% ~ 15%.
2.3. Moderate hybrid electric vehicle
Hybrid electric vehicle with engine and / or motor as power source. In general, the ratio of the peak power of the motor to the rated power of the engine is 15% ~ 40%.
2.4. Full hybrid electric vehi-cle
Hybrid electric vehicle with engine and / or motor as power source and the motor can drive the vehicle independently. They generally use high-capacity batteries to supply the motor for pure electric mode operation. At the same time, they also have power switching devices to couple and separate the power of the engine and motor. In general, the ratio of the peak power of the motor to the rated power of the engine is > 40%.
- Other division forms
3.1. Divided by external charging capacity
Externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle and non externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle.
3.2. Divided according to the selection mode of driving mode
Hybrid electric vehicle with driving mode manual selection function. The optional driving modes of the vehicle include heat engine mode, pure electric mode and hybrid mode. For hybrid electric vehicles without manual selection function, the driving mode of the vehicle is automatically switched according to different working conditions.
3.3. Divided by vehicle use
Hybrid electric passenger car, hybrid electric bus, hybrid electric truck.
3.4. It is divided according to the rechargeable energy storage system mixed with the engine
Battery hybrid electric vehicle, super capacitor hybrid electric vehicle, electromechanical flywheel hybrid electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle with power battery and super capacitor.