- Foreign development status
In recent decades, developed countries have invested a lot of human and financial resources in the development of electric vehicles, and various related technologies of electric vehicles have also made significant progress. Since the United States formulated the electric vehicle research plan in 1976, general motors and Ford have invested a lot of money in the research and development of electric vehicles, which is due to the attention of governments and major automobile companies all over the world.
For example, the hy wire model developed by general motors of the United States, called hydrodynamics 3, generates electricity from a battery pack composed of 200 fuel cell blocks connected in series, and provides hydrogen to the fuel cell pack through a 68l hydrogen storage tank. After the electric energy generated by the battery pack is input into the motor, the vehicle is driven by a three-phase asynchronous motor with a power of 60kW, and almost no noise is generated. There are two kinds of hydrogen storage tanks: one is liquid hydrogen with a temperature of – 253 ℃; The other tank stores high-pressure hydrogen with a maximum pressure of 700pa. The driving mileage of one-time inflation can reach 400km and 270km respectively.
The following figure shows the volt electric vehicle of GM Chevrolet. The Chevrolet Volt concept car was unveiled at the North American International Auto Show held in Detroit in January 2007. The Chevrolet Volt Electric concept car can be regarded as an all-round environmental protection concept car – “the only model that can be compatible with many new energy technology solutions that bring competitive advantages to GM”. It is called “all-round” because the E-Flex system is a very flexible electric vehicle
The automotive architecture perfectly solves the global adaptability of automotive energy. The Chevrolet Volt concept vehicle is equipped with GM’s latest and most efficient hydrogen fuel cell system for the first time, which fully reflects GM’s unremitting efforts in the process of zero emission and energy diversification. This Chevrolet Volt concept car is equipped with the latest generation of GM’s power propulsion system, E-Flex system (“E-Flex” system is the name of GM’s next-generation electric propulsion system. In which “e” stands for “electricity”, which is the only driving mode of E-Flex models. While “flex” stands for “flexibility”, which means that the power used to drive the car can be obtained from various ways), so that we can get from gasoline, ethanol Electricity can be obtained from biodiesel or hydrogen, which allows us to customize the propulsion system to meet special requirements and market-specific infrastructure.
In September 1996, Toyota Motor Corporation of Japan developed rav4-ev pure electric vehicle prototype, and launched its modified vehicle in October 1997. The car is a practical EV with “zero pollution” and low maintenance, which has been sold in batch in the United States. The shape and structure are shown in the figure below.
The power battery pack of Toyota rav4-ev pure electric vehicle is a maintenance free sealed MH / Ni power battery pack, which is connected in series by 240 1.2V batteries. Forced air cooling is adopted, and the cooling fan is installed in the front of the power battery pack to control the temperature of the power battery pack. The power battery is assembled in the middle of the chassis and under the floor of the seat, which can ensure a wide riding space in the carriage. The on-board charger can charge at the place with power supply anytime and anywhere, which brings great convenience to users. The drive system adopts permanent magnet motor, which has high efficiency and small volume. Motor front – drive axle front, with high efficiency, small volume and light weight. During braking, the motor is converted into a generator to recover the braking energy, convert it into electric energy and store it in the power battery pack. All working conditions of the driving motor are adjusted and converted by the power control component.
- Current situation of China’s development
In the 20th century, China has missed the golden development period of the automobile industry. New energy vehicles will undoubtedly become the development direction of vehicles in the future. During the 12th Five Year Plan period, China’s new energy vehicles will officially enter the industrialization development stage: from 2011 to 2015, China will enter the industrialization stage and promote new energy city buses, hybrid cars and small electric vehicles in the whole society. During the 13th Five Year Plan period (i.e. 2016-2020), China will further popularize new energy vehicles, multi energy hybrid vehicles and plug-in electric cars, and hydrogen fuel cell cars will gradually enter ordinary families. Therefore, China’s government and enterprises have increased the research and development of new energy vehicles in recent years, and have introduced relevant measures in terms of policy support and technology research and development.
According to the Interim Measures for the administration of financial subsidies for the demonstration and promotion of energy-saving and new energy vehicles jointly issued by the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of science and technology in February 2009, the models included in the catalogue of recommended models for the demonstration, promotion and application project of energy-saving and new energy vehicles will enjoy financial subsidies according to the following standards: for passenger vehicles and light commercial vehicles, hybrid vehicles are divided into five gears according to the degree of mixing and fuel economy, The maximum subsidy is 50000 yuan per vehicle; Subsidy of 60000 yuan for each pure electric vehicle; 250000 yuan for each fuel cell vehicle; For urban buses and hybrid buses with a length of more than 10m, 50000-420000 yuan will be subsidized for each, and 500000 yuan and 600000 yuan for pure electric and fuel cell buses respectively.
On April 28, 2010, four national standards, including conductive charging interface for electric vehicles, general requirements for electric vehicle charging stations, communication protocol between electric vehicle battery management system and off-board charger, and test method for energy consumption of light hybrid electric vehicles, passed the review of the electric vehicle sub Technical Committee of the National Technical Committee for automotive standardization. The formulation of the above standards has laid a foundation for establishing and improving China’s new energy vehicle standard system and further promoting the development of new energy vehicle industry.
The plan of “ten cities and thousands of new energy vehicles” implemented by the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of science and technology plans to develop 10 cities every year in three to four years, and each city will launch no less than 1000 new energy vehicles for demonstration operation.
The list of cities participating in the “ten cities and thousands of vehicles” plan has increased to 13, namely Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Changchun, Dalian, Hangzhou, Jinan, Wuhan, Shenzhen, Hefei, Changsha, Kunming and Nanchang. The local finance of the 13 cities participating in the demonstration should also arrange supporting funds to give appropriate subsidies to the relevant expenses such as the purchase of energy-saving and new energy vehicles, the construction and maintenance of supporting facilities. Four commercial vehicles and one passenger vehicle are recommended for the first batch of energy-saving and new energy vehicle demonstration, promotion and application projects determined in August 2009, and a total of five models are selected as follows:
Iveco pure electric service vehicle (product model: nj5056xfwd) produced by Nanjing Automobile Group Co., Ltd.
Jianghuai pure electric engineering vehicle (product model: hfc5040xgcevr) produced by Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Co., Ltd.
Zhongtai electric light bus (product model: jnj6400evl) produced by Hunan Jiangnan Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
Jiangling Quanshun pure electric service vehicle (product model: jx5041xev-li) produced by Jiangxi Jiangling Automobile Group modified vehicle Co., Ltd.
BYD hybrid car (product model: qcj7100adm) produced by BYD Automobile Co., Ltd.
Shanghai: there are more than 30 new energy bus lines. Taking the opportunity of the 2010 World Expo, Shanghai will promote the use of new energy vehicles around the goal of “zero emission in the World Expo Park and low emission in the surrounding areas”. In 2009, more than 30 new energy vehicle bus lines have been put into commercial operation in Shanghai. In 2010, the scale of demonstration operation of new energy vehicles in Shanghai has exceeded 1000.
Hangzhou: nearly 300 new energy vehicles have been operated on the road. Hangzhou demonstration and promotion pilot started early and had a good foundation. With the strong support of the government, private enterprises have high enthusiasm and large investment. In 2009, nearly 300 new energy vehicles have been put into operation. According to the planning of Hangzhou, the application scale of more than 3000 new energy vehicles will be reached by 2012.
Shenzhen: 101 hybrid buses were put into operation. In 2009, 101 hybrid buses have been put into use in Shenzhen. According to the implementation plan for the demonstration and promotion of energy-saving and new energy vehicles in Shenzhen, by 2012, a total of 2.4 million new energy vehicles will be demonstrated and promoted in the three key areas of public transport, official business and private cars in Shenzhen Ten thousand. The municipal government has invested more than RMB 2 billion in the promotion of new cars and included it in the demonstration scheme of Shenzhen.
Dalian: invest 77 new energy buses. In 2010, 92 hybrid buses and 15 pure electric buses have been put into use in Dalian. According to the plan, Dalian will realize more than 2400 vehicles by 2012.
Chongqing: the new energy vehicle industry alliance was established. Chongqing will promote 1150 demonstration vehicles by the end of 2011, and the specific composition is referred to as “3721”. 3. Promotion of 300 official vehicles; 7. Promote 700 taxis; 2. Demonstration of 2 bus lines and 50 buses; 1, i.e. 100 private cars, and establish a Chongqing new energy vehicle industrialization base.